Development Status Analysis And Development Forecast Of Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (Si-APDs) Industry

Published Date: 2022-08-04
1.1.1 Main Features of Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (Si-APDs) Industry Development
[Industry technical characteristics] The technology of silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si-APDs) is now very mature, basically replacing photomultiplier tubes, but the upper limit of the spectral response of silicon materials is only 1100nm, so it is mainly used in the visible light band and detected in the infrared band The efficiency is extremely low, and InGaAs/lnP or the newer HgCdTe avalanche photon detectors are usually used in this band.

[Domestic development lags] The United States and Japan are the leading countries in technology in the world, while the domestic development is very lagging behind. The 44th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation was the first to conduct research on military applications. At present, domestic Si-APD devices are still It lags behind foreign giants in an all-round way, mainly due to the lack of application, which leads to incomplete product serialization.

【Wide product application】Silicon-based avalanche photodiode is an optoelectronic device that can be used to detect weak light or even single photon, which makes it have a wide range of applications. At present, it is mainly used in laser ranging, laser imaging, biomedical imaging and other fields, and has application value in free space optical communication, nuclear radiation dose, etc.


1.1.2 Development Trend of Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (Si-APDs) Industry
[Miniaturization and integration of devices] All optoelectronic devices tend to be smaller and more integrated for the consideration of heat dissipation and application range, and the same is true for silicon avalanche photodiodes.

[Further improvement of performance] With the advancement of materials and design, the research on silicon avalanche photodiodes will focus on improving the detection responsivity in the ultraviolet band, infrared and near-infrared bands, and the improvement of performance parameters such as impact ionization coefficient.

[Tendency of product customization] With the development of downstream applications, various performance parameters of its requirements will be more refined, which will place higher requirements on the technical capabilities of manufacturers.


1.1.3 Factors Influencing the Development of Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (Si-APDs) Industry
【Favorable factors】
1. The rapid development of unmanned driving
Silicon-based avalanche photodiodes are widely used as detectors for automotive ToF lidars, and their market demand will continue to grow with the development of the driverless market.


2. Large domestic market space
The overall market of optical devices in my country is weak, mainly relying on the advantages of device packaging to occupy a place in the low-end market, but there are still major deficiencies in the field of high-end products. The domestic demand for high-end products is large, and the market in my country's related optical communication, laser and other fields is growing rapidly. With the accelerated process of domestic substitution caused by the technology blockade of China by the United States in recent years, it will release greater market demand.

【Disadvantages】
1. The impact of alternative technologies
As the current main application of lidar, the technology of its detector is also developing continuously. At present, the CMOS-based SPAD has stronger detection ability for extremely weak optical signals, and is regarded as one of the more ideal choices. Low cost, low power consumption, and can further optimize the size. At the same time, based on the development of other ranging technologies such as FMCW, the market space of ToF and silicon avalanche photodiodes may be further squeezed.

2. Technology gap between domestic and foreign
Due to the relatively backward domestic technology, high-end products are basically occupied by foreign countries such as First Sensor and Hamamatsu. Domestic manufacturers have many problems in developing high-end products from materials to design, and the technology of leading foreign manufacturers is constantly improving, so it is difficult to catch up. .


1.1.4 Development Status and Forecast of Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (Si-APDs) Industry
During the 13th Five-Year Plan (2017-2021), the global silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APDs) market size in 2017 was US$66.40 million. Due to the impact of the epidemic in the past two years, according to the latest QYR survey, the global silicon avalanche photodiode in 2021 Diodes (Si-APDs) market size is USD 77.66 million, with a CAGR of 3.99% during the five-year period 2017-2021.

During the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021 to 2025), the global scale is expected to reach US$94.17 million in 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of 4.94% from 2021 to 2025.

Avalanche photodiodes are semiconductor light detectors (photodiodes) that operate at relatively high reverse voltages (usually in the tens or even hundreds of volts), sometimes only slightly below threshold. In this range, the carriers (electrons and holes) excited by the absorbing photons are accelerated by a strong internal electric field and then generate secondary carriers, which often happens in photomultiplier tubes. The avalanche process occurs only over a distance of a few micrometers, and the photocurrent can be amplified many times. Therefore, avalanche photodiodes can be used as very sensitive detectors, requiring less electronic signal amplification and therefore less electronic noise. However, the quantum noise and amplifier noise inherent in the avalanche process negate the previously mentioned advantages. The additive noise can be quantitatively described by the additive noise figure, F, which is a factor that characterizes the increase in electronic noise power compared to an ideal photodetector.

Silicon-based avalanche diodes are more sensitive in the wavelength region of 450-1000 nm (sometimes can reach 1100 nm), and the highest responsivity is in the range of 600-800 nm, that is, the wavelength in this wavelength region is slightly smaller than that of Si p-i-n diodes. The multiplication factor (also called gain) of Si APDs varies between 50 and 1000 depending on the device design and the applied reverse voltage.

The mass production of Si-APD devices has long been in the hands of foreign giants, such as First Sensor in the United States and Hamamatsu in Japan. The research on mass production and preparation of Si-APD devices in China started relatively late. At present, domestic Si-APD devices still lag behind foreign giants in an all-round way.

With the rapid development of applications such as intelligent driving, intelligent home furnishing, and high-sensitivity detection, the need for detection of weak light and single photons will grow explosively. There are two main development directions of Si-APD device technology, one is the miniaturization and integration of devices. Another aspect is the further improvement of the performance of Si-APD devices, such as the improvement of detection responsivity in the ultraviolet and infrared and near-infrared bands. With the continuous development of Si-APD technology and the maturity of Si-APD mass production technology, Si-APD devices with low price and superior performance can be used in more and more fields.

According to QYResearch, the global silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APDs) market size will be approximately US$77.66 million in 2021, and is expected to reach US$116.99 million in 2028, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.45% during 2022-2028.
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